Jump to content

SaveMySanity's Oral Health Guide


Recommended Posts

First you'll be wondering how this has to do with gaming. You could die from poor oral health and being dead means no more gaming, this is for you.

Also has requested this has been "dumbed down" a little. I've always mentioned that poor oral health affects more than your mouth. I will touch on this a little in this guide. Lets begin. 

How can your oral health affect your gastrointestinal system?




It is widely known that aspects such as nutrition or mental health directly influence the general well-being, therefore we must be aware that oral health and the state of our mouth are inseparable from integral health.


Ignoring signs or symptoms of the oral malfunction is detrimental to a good state of health.


Content to follow


·         Oral cavity


·         Mouth microorganisms


·         Helicobacter Pylori


·         Oral Health and Gastrointestinal System


·         Oral Health and Integral Health


·         Oral health care



Characteristics of the human mouth


In humans, the mouth is an integral part of digestion, speech, and breathing. In the first place, it is the place where food is introduced, which the teeth crush through the action of chewing. Digestion also begins in the mouth, thanks to the enzymes that the major and minor salivary glands secrete. In this way, mistakes in masticatory capacity lead to changes and even deficits in diet and nutrition, due to the need to adapt the food to the limited ability to chew, resorting to puree and softer foods and renouncing other necessary edibles.


Secondly, the set of the mouth, lips, tongue and nasal cavity alter the sound waves originating in the larynx to produce sounds and words, allowing the action of articulated speech.


And third, breathing (inhaling and exhaling air) is done through the oral and nasal cavity.



Likewise, the mouth is an important part of the whole face and facial expression, with its consequent aesthetic and social value, when it comes to showing emotions.


Conformation of the Denture


The adult human teeth are formed by thirty-two teeth that are classified into four groups: incisors, canines (also known as fangs), premolars (or bicuspids) and molars.



Role of the teeth


First, the teeth facilitate chewing and, with the help of the tongue, to swallow the food: the front incisors cut the food, the canines and premolars reduce their size and, finally, the molars crush and crush them until that is digestible.


Second, the teeth serve to speak, because they are directly involved in the articulation of language, serving as a point of support against which the language presses to emit certain sounds.


Finally, the denture influences the dimensions and expression of the face.



The oral cavity and bacteria


In the mouth, various microorganisms accumulate from birth. On the other hand, the teeth are covered by an invisible layer, called acquired film, which is formed from the proteins contained in the saliva. In this layer, they are also depositing different bacteria and food waste. Thus, this set of film and bacteria is called bacterial or dental plaque[1]


The bacteria that compose it are united to each other by a mechanism formed by protein components and carbohydrates -sugars coming from the food that is ingested in diet-, which also serve as food for the bacteria. Depending on the type of bacteria that predominate in it, the plaque can be acidic or alkaline.


The plaque begins to accumulate on the teeth twenty minutes after eating and remains attached to them. If it is not appropriately eliminated every day, it ends up getting thicker and, when it comes into contact with the calcium salts that contain food and saliva, it is transformed into a hard deposit called tartar.



Most frequent oral diseases due to bacterial action


Oral diseases share risk factors with the four most important chronic diseases-cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes-as situations such as unhealthy diets, smoking and the harmful use of alcohol favor them. In this case, another risk factor is poor oral hygiene.


In general, the most frequent diseases of the mouth affect the teeth (caries and sensitivity) or the supporting tissue of these (periodontal diseases), and they are very widespread since they affect almost the entire population.



Thus, if the bacterial plaque is not properly eliminated through proper oral hygiene, the following problems can occur in our mouth, depending on the type of bacteria predominating in it.


Dental cavities


A decay involves the progressive destruction of the tooth, which is demineralized and in which holes or cavities are formed. Caries begins with the destruction of enamel by the bacteria present in the plaque, which metabolize sugars and produce acids capable of damaging that enamel over time. If decay progresses, it will damage other layers of the tooth, until it is destroyed. This condition can lead to relatively strong pains, especially in contact with heat, cold and sugar. In its appearance, bacterial plaque, feeding, and the fragility of the teeth influence, since there are people whose teeth are more susceptible to this problem.





The accumulation of dental plaque inflames the gums, which swell and bleed. It can be cured without any sequelae because it affects only the gum.





 It is a more severe form of gingivitis, which has an infectious nature, so it can progressively extend and affect the ligaments and bone that support the tooth. These are destroyed, which frequently leads to the loss of the tooth[2]



Symptoms of gingival and periodontal diseases


        Bleeding of the gum. This is the main warning sign of a problem in the supporting tissues of the tooth. Bleeding gum is a diseased gum that requires treatment.


        Inflammation. It can also be a sign to consider. What happens is that often this inflammation is masked by smoking or the use of antiseptic rinses and is not detected.


        Halitosis or constant bad breath. Some studies have shown that odor is the result of the metabolism of bacteria, which produces sulfur compounds.


        Besides, reddened gums, loss of the lobate form of the gum, discomfort when chewing gingival inflammation or dental hypersensitivity are some other symptoms of gingival and periodontal diseases.


        Finally, the mobility of a tooth due to the loss of a large part of the bone, or the appearance of spaces between the teeth, may signal a very advanced periodontal disease.



There is no doubt that the destructive action that can develop bacteria inside the oral cavity is that there are a number of microorganisms that colonize our mouth, which is a little incredible to think that they can be kept under control, however the best way to attack them and to avoid its multiplication and the consequences of this, is to know them first.



Conformation of the oral bacterial flora


For a clearer and simpler compression of the oral cavity, specialists have defined areas, these have different characteristics from each other and allows to know how the microorganisms are distributed inside the mouth. Because of this, the mouth can be divided into two large ecosystems, one Supragingival, and the other Subgingival.





·         Aerobic: This ecosystem contains oxygen


·         The medium is the saliva that is necessary for balance in the mouth.


·         Forces of mastication: with them, the microorganisms cannot be established in a niche since they are removed by chewing


·         Presence of microorganisms that come from the external environment, exogenous fluids, oral microorganisms.





·         Anaerobic: It is an ecosystem that lacks oxygen, the microorganisms of this ecosystem are more pathogenic.



·         Crevicular fluid: this fluid can be defined as an inflammatory exudate that comes from the connective tissue, which flows to the oral cavity through the gingival sulcus and which would participate as one of the mechanisms of defense of the gum by its action of mechanical entrainment, dilution of bacterial toxins, antibacterial components, and defensive cells. Its components come from cells, plasma and host tissues, as well as bacterial cells.



How are bacteria classified in the oral cavity?


Bacteria are usually classified according to several criteria, their shape, in coconuts (spherical), bacilli (rod form), spirits and spirits (spirals); According to its structure of the cell wall; for its behavior based on GRAM staining; depending on the presence of oxygen; according to their metabolic or fermenting capacities; depending on the serological identification of the components of its surfaces and its nucleic acids.



Mouth microorganisms


Within the oral cavity, we find types of bacteria that are more destructive than others. In the supragingival ecosystem, we find the early colonizers of GRAM + aerobes. As the ecosystem decreases oxygen, more organized and periodontopathogen bacteria are established. These are from GRAM -, and they inhabit the subgingival ecosystem.



The most pathogenic bacteria are classified as follows:



        Bacteroid genus: A genus of bacillus-like bacteria that survive without oxygen (gracilis, forsythus (Tannerellaforsythuus))


        Genus Treponema denticola, they are spirits (socranski)


        Genus Porphyromonas: They are cocobacilli (gingivalis)


        Genus Agregatibacter: This is the most aggressive bacterium (actinomycetemcomitans).



Bacteria according to oral health status


If any mouth is observed under the microscope, millions of bacteria can be seen in it, even if it were the mouth of a newborn there would be bacteria present. But the bacteria will be different according to the health status of each of the selected people. So, if we examine a healthy patient, we will discover that there are GRAM + supragingival and GRAM bacteria - not very aggressive.


In a patient with Gingivitis, we found more bacteria species with GRAM + that will influence the production of supragingival calce with the consequent inflammation and bleeding of the gums, which in turn will produce GRAM bacteria - more pathogenic and subgingival.


In a patient with Periodontitis the bacteria originate mainly causing gingivitis giving way to the most periodontopathogen bacteria, which are of GRAM -, opportunistic and that live without the need of oxygen. These are the species that we can find according to the patient's condition.



How do bacteria exert the process of periodontal destruction?



a)      To cause periodontal disease, a series of simultaneous requirements must be met:


        Pathogenic microorganisms in sufficient quantities and quality


        Host susceptible locally and systemically


        Favorable environment for infection



b  Start of inflammation


        Bacterial plaque is the inflammatory response of the epithelial tissues that cause gingivitis.



c) Establishment of the injury


        A dilatation of the vessels located below the junctional epithelium occurs, displacing gum and bone. This is what causes bone loss and is a direct consequence of periodontitis.



Direct damage is caused by bacteria of the type Porphyromonagingivalis, Agregatibacteractinomycetemcomitans

And indirect damage that provokes the immune response of the host to the foreign antigens of microorganisms. These can penetrate the tissues.



Helicobacter pylori


The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, flagellated, positive urease bacillus that resides under the gastric mucosa. Thanks to its urease activity it metabolizes urea producing carbon dioxide and ammonia that allows it to nest in the digestive tract.


The microorganism has been detected in dental plaque, tartar, saliva, stomach mucosa, and stool. The most likely mode of transmission would be from person to person, although this is not entirely clear and is widely discussed. The most plausible routes for its transmission are the fecal-oral and oral-oral routes.


 It is possible that the oral cavity is the initial site of the infection, and persist at that level in a low replicative index for a long period of time without colonizing the stomach.


Helicobacter pylori are the cause of a bacterial infection common worldwide, with a prevalence of around 30-90 per 100. The prevalence increases with age and in those who consume tobacco and alcohol. It is believed that 30-50 percent of asymptomatic adults present the bacteria at the gastric level. Of all those infected, only 10-15 percent will develop ulcers.


 The presence of this microorganism at the level of dental plaque could represent a risk for reinfection after antibiotic therapy. After eradicating cures, Helicobacter pylori would disappear from the stomach and persist in tartar and pharynx.



 The diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection is made by:



·         Serological techniques, which measure the response of the defense system through the detection of antibodies against Helicobacter pylori.


·         Breath test, which detects urea marked with carbon 13. If the bacteria exist, the urea is decomposed by the urease producing ammonium and carbon dioxide. The latter, marked with carbon 13, is expelled with breathing and measured.



Helicobacter pylori and its role in oral and gastrointestinal pathologies


More usual than it seems: someone brushes his teeth and, after a few minutes, realizes that he still has bad breath. Why does this happen if our mouth is clean? It turns out that halitosis can be a consequence of multiple causes. Although the most common is related to poor oral hygiene, it can also have other origins, such as some problem of the digestive system. Specifically, with the stomach.[3]



Relationship between halitosis and stomach


Halitosis of gastric origin is not the most common. Approximately 90% of bad breath is of oral origin. The rest, that 10%, is the one that has an extra-oral origin, that is, it comes from a place that is not the mouth, like the stomach, the respiratory system or other causes. In addition, it must be taken into account that there are various pathologies of the digestive tract that may be related to bad breath, such as gastritis, ulcers, hiatus hernias, gastroesophageal reflux, Zenker's diverticulum, intestinal inflammatory diseases. or the presence of foreign bodies in the pharynx.


The stomach is directly connected to the esophagus, which, in turn, is attached to the oral cavity. If a problem or malfunction arises along the path of the digestive tract, it can result in bad breath. The bacterium 'Helicobacter pylori' is usually the cause of the gastric infection that causes, among others, halitosis. Their presence causes the generation of gases called volatile sulfur compounds, which among its characteristics is to produce a bad smell.





The dentist will be in charge of detecting if the halitosis is of oral or extra-oral origin. If it is extraoral (it occurs outside the mouth), the patient will be referred to the corresponding doctor.


It is common for patients with the suspected bad breath of stomach origin to request a digestive endoscopy to explore the esophagus and stomach. However, this should not be the standard. Normally, the first test that is performed is a breath test (gas chromatography), to detect bacterial presence. Subsequently, endoscopy can be useful when there are digestive symptoms for the diagnosis of associated pathology. All these tests will vary depending on the diagnostic method that the doctor considers most appropriate for each case





Luckily, yes. The bad breath originated in the stomach has a safe and effective treatment. There are tests that determine the presence of the bacteria 'Helicobacter pylori' in the body. If the halitosis is of gastric origin, eliminating this bacterium will stop having bad breath. This confirms the relationship between infection and halitosis. Treatment may include the use of antibiotics and other medications. The dentist will be the professional who will be in charge of detecting if the halitosis is of extraoral origin. If this is the case, it will be he who will refer the corresponding professional.



How to handle halitosis


If your halitosis occurs in the mouth, these tips can help you reduce symptoms:


        It is important to make a good brushing, accessing all areas of the mouth without forgetting to brush all the faces of all the teeth.


        We must also use dental floss, which helps reach the interdental areas, where we cannot reach with tooth brushing.


        Clean your tongue and use to complete the hygiene, a mouthwash. Remember that there are toothpastes and specific rinses to help keep your breath fresh. Try that your diet is balanced. Avoid overly spicy foods.


        Decrease the consumption of alcohol, coffee or tobacco.


        Drink between liter and a half and two liters of water per day.


        Performs regular check-ups at the dental clinic



Relationship between oral health and the gastrointestinal system


Having a bad breath and yellowing teeth are some of the basic problems that oral health seeks to eliminate, but its importance is that it can prevent major complications in the body.


The mouth is the beginning of the digestive tract. The teeth and salivary glands help break down food to be digested, there are several links between oral health and nutrition. Just as oral diseases can affect diet and nutrition, the latter can affect the development and progress of diseases of the oral cavity.


The first phase of digestion begins in the mouth, with chewing and salivation. The latter presents ferments that allow food to be divided into smaller molecules that cross the digestive mucosa, favoring the absorption of nutrients, caries generates infections that contaminate nervous tissue and affect the gums, which means that chewing is not very effective and provoke more work to the digestive system.


Caries also causes an infection that gradually contaminates the nervous tissue and affects the gums, then leads to the crushing of food is not the most effective and causes more work to the digestive system.


Other conditions that occur are gastritis and heart problems (pain in the heart) caused by bacteria (staphylococcus) that arise from the presence of infectious buccal disease and directly affect the valves of the heart, which open and close when the blood passes to the compartments of this vital organ



Consequences of a bad chewing



1.      Enzymes of the digestive tract will not fully exert their influence and action on large pieces of food.


2.      Incomplete mastication decreases the taste of food when this is a factor that increases the flow of saliva and, therefore, the formation of a food bolus that has excellent quality to be digested.


3.      Large food particles are retained longer in the stomach, producing fermentations and gases.


4.      In patients with poor masticatory function it has been shown that digestive disorders occur more frequently; the mastication disorders are related to the affections of the mouth, stomach, small intestine, gastrointestinal motility, sensory, renal, respiratory organs and TMJ disorders (Temporomandibular Joint), based on this there is a significant relationship between the patient's age, type of chewing, time of edentulism (dental absences) and mastication deficient with digestive disorders, so it is advisable to promote health education activities to improve the quality of life in these patients.



In addition, when we do not chew well and hinder the decomposition of food, the body is not able to separate well the beneficial nutrients from the toxins. This can lead to problems of malnutrition and body poisoning, as well as the following:



        Digestive problems. By preventing proper decomposition and lubrication, not chewing well can cause a feeling of heaviness, gas, congestion in the colon or constipation.


        Slow metabolism. When we do not chew food correctly, we are also hindering the function of the organs responsible for metabolizing them. Heavy digestion slows metabolism and decreases caloric expenditure.


    Weight gain. Slow metabolism is also synonymous with weight gain since the body does not burn calories easily and accumulates waste that it is hard to eliminate. But, besides, not chewing well causes us to eat more than we should, since we do not experience satiety. 


Oral health and comprehensive health are related?


The answer is absolute yes. Oral diseases share common risk factors with general health diseases and many come from individual behavior and lifestyle, such as an unhealthy diet, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and poor oral hygiene


There is a close relationship between oral health and general health in all stages of life, the World Health Organization has dedicated numerous campaigns to raise awareness of this relationship. Oral diseases share common risk factors with general health diseases and many come from individual behavior and lifestyle, such as an unhealthy diet, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and poor oral hygiene.


Among the systemic diseases related to the behavior and state of oral health are the following:






It is a public health problem where more than 1/3 of the world population are obese or overweight and childhood obesity has multiplied by 4 in recent decades. The premise in this case and in many others will always be to follow a healthy and balanced diet from childhood, low in sugar, salt, fat, and high in fruits and vegetables, avoiding the consumption of carbonated drinks and meals between meals, reduces oral diseases and contributes to good general health.





Diabetes has been unequivocally confirmed as a major risk factor for periodontal disease and the risk of periodontitis is multiplied by 3 in diabetic patients.


But the relationship between gum health and diabetes is bi-directional. On the one hand, periodontal disease has an influence on diabetes, worsening its adequate control. Several studies have indicated that the complications of diabetes such as retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, proteinuria or cardiovascular complications are intimately associated with the severity of periodontitis. On the other hand, both childhood type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes in adults worsen the periodontal state. In both diseases (periodontitis and diabetes) the inflammatory processes are increased and this explains that important microvascular alterations occur that make the presence of one of the two affects and worsens the picture of the other disease.



Cardiovascular disease


Patients suffering from gum disease are between 25 and 50% more likely to suffer from cardiovascular diseases


This is due to the large number of bacteria that exist under the gum and that can pass into the blood and affect other parts of the body, increasing the level of inflammation throughout the body. In Spain, 8 million people suffer from periodontal diseases, such as gingivitis, of which 2 of them suffer from the disease in a serious way.[4]



Dental health according to the stages of life


Oral health has different needs according to the age group and the presence or not of comorbidities, therefore dedicating adequate care according to the needs of the moment prevent the development of many diseases in the future.





Children will always be a vulnerable link, in the case of dental diseases is not the exception, the prevalence of caries in the first teeth is high, that is why it is recommended to go to the dentist's office from the first year of life in order to detect and prevent pathologies, early caries and other anomalies.


We must banish the belief that you do not have to treat cavities in milk teeth because they are going to fall, they must be treated because they can cause infections, cause tooth loss and create problems later. In addition, the bacteria of the cavities of the milk teeth can affect the final teeth, producing caries also in these. At the check-ups, the dentist will decide whether to apply resin sealants or fluoride varnish to protect the teeth.





The oral and general health of pregnant women directly influence the health of the baby. Therefore, it is advisable that the pregnant woman go to the dentist, who will perform a review and treat any oral problem. The priority is to take the necessary measures to avoid colonization of the oral cavity by primary cariogenic agents, especially S. Mutants and S. Sobrinus. To prevent tooth decay and gingivitis typical of this stage, it is crucial to perform a thorough dental brushing with fluoride toothpaste at least twice a day, in addition to the use of interproximal floss or toothbrushes. The dentist will determine if an additional supplement is necessary for proper hygiene.


Excessive vomiting due to morning sickness, as well as gastric acid, and even hormonal changes can cause a loss of minerals from the teeth and promote tooth decay in the pregnant woman.[5]



Older adults


29% of people over 65 have problems chewing as a result of the state of their mouth. On average, each older adult has 16 teeth affected by caries, of which 12 have been extracted. In this stage of life many changes occur in the oral cavity that can cause health problems. For example, the decrease in saliva can increase the risk of oral diseases and the gums tend to retract, leaving the roots exposed to an increased risk of caries and periodontal diseases. Also, at these ages increases the risk of oral cancer, so the dentist should indicate how to do a self-examination of the mouth to detect injuries.


Start taking care of your mouth now




Daily oral care:


Maintaining proper oral hygiene can help prevent previous health problems. To do this, we must clean every day, in addition to our teeth, tongue, gums, palate and the inside of the cheeks.


Carrying out this cleaning process on a regular basis allows tartar to be minimized, in addition to preventing its formation. Likewise, it guarantees the integrity of the teeth and the good health of the gums, which should always be firm and pink and should not bleed during brushing.




In particular, complete hygiene should include the following personal care:


        Brush your teeth carefully. It should be done three times a day - after each meal - but, above all, it is essential to perform a deep brushing before going to sleep, when the production of saliva and tongue movements decreases, since these contribute to removing the plaque bacteria lA manual or electric brush can be used, but it is recommended that it be soft bristles.


        Brush the gums. After the teeth, you should also gently brush your teeth along the gum line.


        Use a dentifrice with fluoride. The toothpaste that we use for brushing should include fluoride in its formula because it helps prevent tooth decay. There is also the option to perform fluoride mouth rinses after tooth brushing.


        Clean the interdental spaces. If there is sufficient space, an interproximal brush or, if not, dental floss or floss should be used. Both should be used at least once a day, preferably at night, in order to ensure the cleanliness of the side faces of the teeth and that no food remains between them.


        Clean your tongue. It should be gently rubbed forward using the toothbrush or a tongue cleaner, since a large number of bacteria accumulate in it.


Also, experts recommend a routine examination of the teeth at least once a year and a professional cleaning every six or twelve months, in order to eliminate the tartar, since this can accumulate on the teeth, although it is worn out at home good dental hygiene.



When to go to the dentist?


The American Dental Association (ADA) recommends going to the dentist in the following cases:


        If you suffer pain in the tooth that has no apparent cause or that is caused by food, drinks, brushing or flossing.


        When you feel excessive sensitivity to drinks or cold and/or hot foods.


        If the gums are red, swollen or bleeding when brushing your teeth.


        When you suffer bad breath.


        When the teeth are loose.



Dental care could be summarized in these 10 key steps:


A healthy lifestyle and carry out simple oral hygiene every day will allow us to enjoy healthy teeth and gums.



1.      Do not abuse carbohydrates.


You will reduce the possibilities of caries or gum problems if you reduce the intake of carbohydrates to a minimum in your diet and avoid sweets and sugary drinks. If you ingest them, remember to brush your teeth later.


2.      Limit the snacks between meals.


Above all, if you do not have the option to brush your teeth later, bacterial plaque begins to form twenty minutes after eating.


3.      Do not smoke.


Tobacco increases the risk of caries or diseases of the gums such as periodontitis.


4.      Brush your teeth carefully.


The ideal is to do it after each meal, but if there is no other option, at least you should brush your teeth before going to sleep. The operation should last between two and three minutes and be done with small circular movements forward and backward.


5.      Do not forget the gums.


And neither of the tongue, the palate and the inside of the cheeks, because they also accumulate bacteria that can cause various dental disorders.


6.      Use a fluoride toothpaste.


Although drinking water is usually flooded, it is advisable to opt for kinds of toothpaste containing fluoride in its formula, since it is proven that this substance prevents cavities.


7.      Renew your brush every three months.


Or when the sows start to look worn. These, on the other hand, it is preferable that they are soft to avoid damaging the tooth enamel.


8.      Learn to floss.


Flossing removes the remains of food hidden between the teeth, but it must be used gently because too vigorous use can damage the gums. If you use it only once a day, as if you opt for the interproximal brush, it is better that you do it before going to bed.


9.      Inculcate your children with good dental hygiene.


Be aware of the importance of brushing your teeth - for at least two minutes - after each meal and before going to bed. Explain how to do it, and use brushes (which you should change every three months) and kinds of toothpaste appropriate for your age. And to prevent cavities, inculcate these measures: do not pass mouth-to-mouth objects or share brushes; do not abuse sugary foods and drinks, and do not go to bed with a bottle. In any case, you are his best example.


10.  See your dentist regularly.


Because even a deep brushing does not eliminate dental plaque, mouth cleanings are recommended every six or twelve months. Also, you should perform a revision of your teeth at least once a year.

















And all my years working in the field. 

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.

Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • Create New...

Important Information

User Agreement